A ganglioglioma is a rare type of brain tumor. Gangliogliomas are generally well-demarcated and slowly growing tumors. Gangliogliomas are types of brain tumors that are made of mixed groups of cells. A cell is the smallest, most basic unit of life that is capable of existing by it. Gangliogliomas are partly made of abnormal glial cells. Glial cells are cells that support and maintain other cells. Gangliogliomas are mixed cell tumors containing both neural ganglionic cells and neural glial cell components. The characteristic imaging findings include increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images with or without calcifications.
These tumors frequently do not improve brightly and may contain a cystic component. Hemorrhage is rarely related with gangliogliomas. In adults, 70% of gangliogliomas are supratentorial with a predilection for the temporal lobes. The most common age gangliogliomas for presentation is in adolescence and young adulthood. Gangliogliomas are also partly made of neurons (nerve cells) that are in different degrees of abnormality. In United States gangliogliomas represent approximately 0.4% of central nervous neoplasms and 1.3% of brain tumors. Only 1% of intramedullary spinal neoplasms are histologically gangliogliomas.
Approximately 10% of primary brain tumors in children are gangliogliomas. Children with certain genetic syndromes, including neurofibromatosis type I and tuberous sclerosis, are at higher risk of developing tumors of glial origin, including gangliogliomas. The vast majority of children with gangliogliomas, however, develop these tumors spontaneously, meaning there is no identifiable cause. The most common symptoms of a ganglioglioma, however each child may experience symptoms differently. Common symptoms may comprise headache, vomiting, fatigue and others may experience seizures and weakness on one side of the body.
The symptoms of a brain tumor may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Treatment of ganglioglioma may comprise surgery and radiation therapy. Radiation therapy utilizes high-energy rays (radiation) from a specialized machine to damage or destroy cancer cells and minimize tumors. Your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies. Children with gangligliomas may have side effects related to the tumor itself and its treatment. Radiation therapy may reason swelling related to tissue inflammation. This inflammation may guide to symptoms of headache or difficulty with coordination.